Course unit code:
Course unit title:
Introduction to Biochemistry
Mode of completion and Number of ECTS credits:
Exm (2 credits)
Learning outcomes of the course unit:
Student knows composition of living organisms, is familiar with functions and properties of enzymes, understands fundamentals of energetic metabolism.
Prerequisites for registration:
Course contents:
Chemical composition of living organisms. Ions, trace elements, occurrence and function, role of water. Buffers. Energetics of living organisms. Equilibrium and noni-equilibrium processes. Chemical equilibria. Coupling of endergonic and exergonic reactions. High-energy bond.
DNA, structure, properties. DNA denaturation. Replication. Types, structures and functions of RNAs. Transcription. Genetic code. Enzymatic activity of RNA.
Amino acids, structure, properties, chemical reactions. Peptide bond. Proteins and polypeptides, their properties and structure. Methods of protein structure study. Proteosynthesis. Monosaccharides. Stereochemistry. Biologically important monosaccharides, their derivatives, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Glycoside bond.
Fatty acids, triacylglycerols, waxes, sterols, complex lipids. Enzymes. Enzymic reaction, kinetics, inhibition. Cell metabolism and its regulation. Concept of operon by Jacob and Monod. Regulation by changes of enzymic activities. Anaerobic and aerobic catabolism of glucose. Gluconeogenesis. Citric acid cycle. Anaplerotic reactions. Glyoxylate cycle. Pentose cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation. Respiratory chain. Coupling of substrate oxidation and ATP synthesis. Protonmotive force. Transport of reducing equivalents, substrates and products of phosphorylarion.
Utilization of fatty acids. Enzymologic, energetic, transport, and regulatory aspects.
Photosynthetic phosphorylation and carbon fixation. Dark-reactions of photosynthesis. Fixation of CO2 in C3 and C4 plants. Photorespiration. Calvin cycle.
Recommended or required reading:
  • FERENČÍK, M. – ŠKÁRKA, B. – NOVÁK, M. – TURECKÝ, L. Biochémia. Bratislava : SAP-Slovak Academic Press, 2000. 924 s. ISBN 80-88908-58-2.
  • KOLLÁROVÁ, M. Základy biochémie. Bratislava : Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 1999. 94 s. ISBN 80-223-1420-X.
  • STRYER, L. Biochemistry. New York : W.H.Freeman, 1988. 1089 s. ISBN 0-7167-1920-7.
  • VOET, D. – VOET, J G. Biochemistry + CD-ROM. Danvers : John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 1591 s. ISBN 0-471-39223-5.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:
Assesment methods and criteria:
Written and oral examination
Language of instruction:
Slovak, English
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